Mutti Would Have Been 100 Today

Elizabeth Josephine Walsh, née Pinke, would have been one hundred years old on March 19, 2018. Known as Betty, she was the youngest of eight children born to Joseph and Josephine Pinke, a Hungarian couple who emigrated to the United States near the end of the nineteenth century. Betty was born in Alabama, but the family moved to the newly incorporated city of Clifton when she was a toddler.

Betty Walsh with (l-r) Tim, Pat, Mike, and Brian. This photo was taken some time in 1958.

Citizenship papers belonging to Joseph Pinke show that he renounced his allegiance to the Emperor of Austria-Hungary and became a U.S. citizen. No such records exist for Josephine, his wife. Faithful Catholics, Joseph and Josephine occasionally attended a Hungarian church in nearby Passaic, but they sent their children to the local parish school in Clifton.

On New Year’s Eve in 1931 Joseph Pinke was injured in an automobile accident. The following summer he died of complications arising from his injuries. Betty, who had recently graduated eighth grade, was obliged to suspend her education so that she could help pay the bills. She worked as a seamstress for a while, following in the footsteps of her sister, Rose. Betty also took evening classes and earned a GED.

Seamstress work, and the proximity of an older sister who could only seem to see the mistakes that she made, led Betty to pursue other career options. She found work as a bookkeeper for a bus company and later a roofing company. She remained in the family home through the Depression years and into the war years that followed, providing and caring for her mother.

In 1945 Josephine fell ill. When she died she left Betty and Rose, both still single, as the only two members of the family still permanently installed in the family home. As the elder of the two, Rose inherited the house. Some time in early 1951 Betty met Ray Walsh, a single carpenter renting a room in a house a few doors away. It was after a nasty snowstorm and Ray lent a hand clearing the snow off the walks.

Betty and Ray married in July, 1951. He moved into the Pinke family home, intending to save up for a down payment on a house he and Betty could call their own. Four boys, Mike, Pat (yours truly), Tim, and Brian came along in quick succession. The down payment never came together, and Ray and Betty continued to live with Rose and raise their sons in the Pinke house.

Mike, Tim, Brian, and I eventually bought homes of our own. Ray died in 1994. In the fall of that year Betty, whom we referred to as Mutti, was found to have ovarian cancer. It was too late in the course of the disease to consider surgery, and chemotherapy slowed the disease only briefly. Betty entered hospice on Valentine’s Day 1996. She lived four days past the six months that Medicare allowed for hospice care. She died in what had been the dining room of the family home, her sons by her bedside.

Like many people who came of age during the Depression and endured the sacrifices that civilians were obliged to make during the Second World War, Betty lived simply. Thrift, the art of making do and getting by with less, and self-reliance defined her life. There was little that would make her cry. The only time I remember seeing her shed tears was during JFK’s funeral in 1963. My wife saw tears on one other occasion.


Book Review: The Peregrine Returns

The Peregrine Returns: The Art and Architecture of an Urban Raptor RecoveryThe Peregrine Returns: The Art and Architecture of an Urban Raptor Recovery by Mary Hennen with Illustrations by Peggy Macnamara

During a recent visit to Chicago my son Andrew and his wife Jodi stopped by the Field Museum. There they purchased a copy of The Peregrine Returns: The Art and Architecture of Urban Rapture Recovery, written by Mary Hennen and illustrated by Peggy Macnamara. They gave it to me for Christmas. I wish I had a coffee table. I would leave the book there indefinitely.

The Peregrine Returns is an informative, charming, and encouraging book. The writing is spare and clear. If the writer had been a journalist or other professional writer the text could easily have become florid. Instead, Mary Hennen is a scientist employed by the Field Museum, and her concise prose exhibits an unforced affection both for the Peregrine falcon and for Chicago.

Each chapter begins with either a “Scientist Note” or an “Artist Note.” The Scientist Notes are brief vignettes, written in the first person, that discuss personal encounters with the birds and their environments. It is here that we see the affection and dedication of the writer and her team of scientists most clearly. Their joy is demonstrated in one passage that describes allowing young volunteers to give chicks such names as “Banana Peel” and “Marshmallow.”

The “Artist Notes,” written by Peggy Macnamara, are brief lessons on the techniques used in rendering the illustrations. Each of the watercolor illustrations is itself a lesson, as the artist has included lines, circles, arcs, and other geometric features in the paintings to demonstrate some of the techniques used to establish perspective, proportion, and balance. Attempting to further describe features of the illustrations, such as the clever enlargement of details, would not do them justice. At least one online bookseller includes some illustrations in its preview of the contents and it is worth scrolling through the pages to see some of the beautiful paintings.

Peregrine falcons were missing from northern Illinois for many years because of human activity. It is encouraging to see falcons returning to northern Illinois because some of that activity has ceased—the use of DDT has been banned—and because humans have reintroduced the species and taken steps to help the species thrive once again. We as a species can learn about our mistakes, learn from them, and take steps to undo their effects. Where else can we apply this principle to mitigate damage that we have done to our environment or to our relationships with one another

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Book Review: Woe is I

Woe Is I: The Grammarphobe's Guide to Better English in Plain EnglishWoe Is I: The Grammarphobe’s Guide to Better English in Plain English by Patricia T. O’Conner

This book is recommended reading for a course on Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage for Editors offered by UC Berkeley. Patricia O’Conner’s portfolio and the list of endorsements at the beginning of the book make her work unassailable, at least by the likes of me. Woe is I is, nonetheless, entertaining and enlightening. If you like Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation by Lynne Truss, you will probably like Woe is I, and vice versa.

Beyond its entertainment value, Woe is I is a valuable reference for an editor or writer. It would be helpful if the chapter titles and subtitles, for example “Spellbound: How to Be Letter Perfect,” were a bit less cryptic, but that is a minor quibble. The glossary, bibliography, and index are helpful. Keep a magnifying glass handy for reading the index. I also wish the author had said more about reading good writing to improve one’s own, but that coverage is limited to the last paragraph of the last chapter. Again, a minor complaint.

I don’t think of myself as a grammar nerd, but I might use “shall” instead of “will” when writing or speaking in the first person. More pedantic authorities might say that is good and proper, but O’Connor does not. Subject and verb must agree, but prepositions don’t always need to precede their objects. This is not iconoclasm for its own sake, but in the service of effective communication.

If you find English grammar puzzling or unappealing but would still like to improve your communication skills, reading Woe is I is worth reading and keeping for reference.

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Book Review: Becoming Wise

Becoming Wise: An Inquiry into the Mystery and Art of LivingBecoming Wise: An Inquiry into the Mystery and Art of Living by Krista Tippett

Krista Tippett is the host of On Being, a weekly program broadcast on NPR stations, including WNYC, where I listen when I have the opportunity. The program is also available as a podcast from On Being’s Web site. From 2003 until 2015 Krista Tippett engaged in conversations with over 400 individuals whose names are listed in the back of the book. Some are people whose names would be familiar to many listeners: Jimmy Carter, Charles Colson, The Dalai Lama, Martin Sheen, Desmond Tutu, Elie Wiesel, Barbara Kingsolver, Phil Donahue to name a few. The conversations consist of one-on-one interviews, sometimes in front of a live audience.

In Becoming Wise Krista Tippett conducts the inquiry described in the subtitle by discussing five themes: word, flesh, love, faith, and hope, and expanding those discussions with excerpts from the conversions she has had through those years. The goal of Becoming Wise is not to provide instruction in how or what to think about these themes, although as a journalist the author certainly wants to inform her audience. The goal seems to be to express how wonderful, complex, frustrating, and even heartbreaking human existence can be when viewed through these five lenses.

That description doesn’t really do justice to the book, though. For another perspective, here is Ms Tippett herself expressing near the end of the book what she has experienced in writing it. She has just describe the work of Benedict of Nursia, who set forth a principle for living that, in time, would keep Western civilization alive:

I take courage in this story. Even with all of my resources as a journalist, and my efforts to focus on what is good and wise and nourishing. I probably do not see the small bands of inventive people, the blips of action setting something in motion that will save the world a hundred or a thousand years from now.

Still, I am dazzled by the great good I can discern everywhere out there. I’ve shared a sliver in these pages, just a sliver. I have a heart full. arms full, a mind brimful and bursting with a sense of what is healing us even as I write, even when we don’t know it and haven’t asked for it. And I do mean healing: not curing, not solving, not fixing, but creating the opportunity for deepened life together, for growing more wise and more whole, not just older, not just smarter. (p. 236)

A bit later the author elaborates on the reason for the book and for her pursuit of conversations with the people cited in the book:

Still, all of this begs the question of why a simple, natural, refreshing thing like taking in goodness, wherever and whenever we see it, requires any effort at all–why it needs all these words. There’s a telling social scientific term for people who defy the “realistic” expectations of a simplistic “survival of th—e fittest” understanding of evolved humanity: “positive deviance.” My profession of journalism, which I love, too often covers whatever is true, honorable, just, pure, pleasing, commendable, excellent, and worthy of praise as a positive deviance. This is a form of reverse moral imagination. Everyone I’ve cited in this book is a positive deviant, easily written off by portenders of doom as an exception to the distasteful human rule. (p. 261)

Both in Becoming Wise and in her work through On Being Krista Tippett practices positive deviance. That is not a bad trait for anyone to cultivate and practice. Anyone reading this review would do well to find a copy of Becoming Wise or listen to some episodes of On Being to learn how we might cultivate positive deviance.

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Book Review: Accidental Saints

Accidental Saints: Finding God in All the Wrong PeopleAccidental Saints: Finding God in All the Wrong People by Nadia Bolz-Weber

Nadia Bolz-Weber was interviewed by Krista Tippett for an episode of On Being that aired on 23 October, 2014 and it was this interview that introduced me to this Lutheran pastor of House for all Sinners and Saints (HFASS) in Denver. Accidental Saints is a series of stories about some of the folks at HFASS, their pastor, and most importantly the God by whose grace and mercy they are called saints. Other individuals not directly associated with HFASS but whose lives have had an impact on Bolz-Weber are also featured in some chapters.

One of the striking characteristics of Nadia Bolz-Weber and her ministry—and there are many striking characteristics—is her liberal use of profanity. I want to get this out of the way quickly because it features prominently in my desire to read this book. It is shocking, and I still wonder why it must be included. However, I understand that frank and shocking language is the currency of ministry among those who would not find themselves in most American churches. So unlike Hope Jahren’s Lab Girl, which I cannot recommend enthusiastically to an audience that includes my preteen granddaughter because of the inclusion of profanity, I can unreservedly recommend Accidental Saints to an audience that includes thoughtful, intelligent, Godly, conservative Christians. We may be shocked by the language but we need to get past it to see that there are significant ministry needs and opportunities among those who would not find themselves in most American churches.

The core of the book is the truth that Jesus came to a world that is, and always has been, seriously messed up. All of us are weak, broken, damaged, lame, and inclined to lie, cheat, betray, and steal our way out of the difficulties we face, or to avoid admitting that we are weak, broken, damaged, and lame. Nadia Bolz-Weber owns her own brokenness. It is as inescapable and unerasable as the tattoos on her arms. She is as much in need of redemption and God’s forgiveness as the most unlovable addict or misfit in her congregation.

Accidental Saints is a thoroughly memorable book, but one passage jumped out at me. In Chapter 11, entitled “Parlors,” Bolz-Weber discusses death, funerals, and birth. She points out that even well into the 20th century, when someone died, it was common for the preparation of the body and the viewing or wake to take place in the home. In a commentary on how modern Westerners have turned over activities such as dealing with death to professionals, she includes playing a musical instrument in those activities.

Accidental Saints is a humbling, challenging book that is uplifting and encouraging at the same time. It is especially valuable for those of us in American Christianity who have convinced ourselves that the world needs to conform to our standards of holiness and purity before it can be welcomed into our faith communities. As Bolz-Weber would say, that’s bulls___.

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Book Review: Reading for the Common Good

Reading for the Common Good: How Books Help Our Churches and Neighborhoods FlourishReading for the Common Good: How Books Help Our Churches and Neighborhoods Flourish by C. Christopher Smith

Reading for the Common Good, as the subtitle suggests, is written in part for Christian churches. There is considerable focus on the reading of the Bible and on practices for disciplined reading of the Bible such as Lectio Divina. There is broader application to reading of just about any other form of literature, including fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. Application is also made to reading in other types of community organizations beside churches.

Reading for the Common Good is about more than just what the members of a congregation or community organization are reading themselves individually. Reading in communion and discovering a community’s identity and calling through that reading are central to its thesis. Reading for the Common Good is also about how members of a congregation or community advocate for and facilitate literacy and reading in the neighborhoods where they serve by offering literacy instruction, and even housing lending libraries and book shops.

Reading for the Common Good sets lofty goals for those who choose to make reading a core practice within their community. Reading communally can help us bridge social barriers such as those erected by racism. It can help us address social ills, injustice, and ecological ills. It can even help us build integrity into our political systems and democratic processes. One imagines that if every pastor, politician, and community leader in the United States would encourage their constituents to read together, the problems that beset those communities could be dealt with in the space of a generation. That is the kind of hope that Reading for the Common Good seeks to cultivate.

One doesn’t need to take Christopher Smith’s word for these promises. Every chapter includes multiple quotes from such diverse voices as Allen Ginsberg, Wendell Berry, Neil Gaiman (whose “Why Our Futures Depend on Libraries, Reading and Daydreaming” is worth a side trip), Peter Senge, Parker Palmer, Thomas Merton, Stephen Fowl and Gregory Jones, Virginia Milhouse, and Walter Brueggemann. Are there more women’s voices that could be heard in making these arguments? Without a doubt. Still, the endnotes point to fine additional reading in subject areas that Smith touches.

Finally, Smith includes two separate reading lists. One is a chapter-by-chapter list specific to the book. The second is a topical list developed by and for Smith’s congregation, Englewood Christian Church of Indianapolis, Indiana. If the reader borrows this book from a public library, photocopy or scan these pages and the endnotes before returning the book!

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Book Review: Silence

SilenceSilence by Shūsaku Endō

This story of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in 17th century Japan is affecting on many levels. The first is the beauty and economy of the writing and the translation. The darkest parts of the narrative are set in beautiful prose. I was also struck by the affection with which the early narrator and protagonist, Rodrigues, describes the villagers among whom he is living. They exist in the deepest poverty but they provide for and shelter Rodrigues and his companion Garrpa.

Second, the historical details are abundant and helpful and do not get in the way of the story. Rodrigues is based on a historical figure who . Rodrigues and his companions have a goal of finding a second historical figure, Ferreira, who is believed to have apostatized. The lives of the fictional characters revolve around historical figures in the places where those figures lived and moved.

Third, there is Kichijiro, a Judas-Iscariot-meets-Gollum character who follows Rodrigues through the entire story. He elicits as much response from Rodrigues, and such a broad range of response, as any other character or event in the story. He befriends, he connives, he betrays, he survives, he falls and repents again and again. He tests the capacity of Rodrigues to forgive, and in the end he calls out of Rodrigues his true sense of his calling as a priest as he asks Rodrigues to hear his confession and grant absolution.

Fourth is the role of silence. The God who brought Rodrigues to Japan is silent as the persecution of the believers grows. The ocean that brought Rodrigues is silent as well. Is Rodrigues expecting aid from or by way of the ocean?

Fifth is the role of faith and doctrine in the story. The Japanese officials insist that Christianity cannot survive in a pure form in Japan. That’s probably true of Christianity in any time and place. It becomes absorbed into the culture. In my lifetime in the Western hemisphere I’ve seen Jesus visualized as the theist Che Guevara of liberation theology, or as a bandana-wearing hippie of the Jesus-People movement. More recently we’ve seen Jesus arm wrestling a Halloween-costume Satan in a social media meme for some battle or other in our contemporary culture wars. Rodrigues seems to understand that God does not change even though how we see and approach God might.

If you are looking for a beautifully written, thought-provoking, albeit somber book to read this winter, Silence might be a good choice.

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Darkness Isn’t All Bad . . .

Except When It Is

The first time I saw the Milky Way, some time in the late 1960s, I was on a ballfield at a Boy Scout camp in Morris County, NJ. It was awe inspiring, even to a largely clueless junior high kid. It’s no longer possible to see the Milky Way in many, if any parts of New Jersey. Maybe deep in the Pine Barrens or in the northwestern hills, but probably not within fifty miles of New York City.

Center of the Milky Way Galaxy from the mountains of West Virginia. Photo by Forest Wander from Cross Lanes, USA (Center Milky Way Galaxy Mountains) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (, via Wikimedia Commons.
The ability to view such sights is so important that some people are working to create dark sky reserves in such places as central Idaho. The absence of light is essential for those who want to observe celestial phenomena. Light pollution from cities and suburbs interferes with astronomical work that makes use of optical telescopes.

Darkness is beneficial to astronomers and to those of us who relish the sight of the stars and planets on a clear night and who hope to see a meteorite now and then. Darkness, though, has a [clears throat] dark side.

We are now in the liturgical season of Advent, the beginning of the Christian liturgical year. Advent occurs as the daylight hours are shortest in the Northern Hemisphere. This alignment of the seasons seems particularly appropriate now. Darkness fills more of the twenty-four hour day. Darkness also seems to want to fill our lives as the social, cultural, and political atmospheres in the United States are dominated by dense clouds of hatred, bigotry, and contempt for those with opposing views.

Darkness characterized the first Advent. The years between Ezra and Nehemiah, the last narratives of the Old Testament, and the Nativity stories of Luke and Matthew were dark years for Israel. Under the Persians, who were in power when Nehemiah rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem, Israel was essentially a vassal state. The Persian overlords were replaced by the Seleucids, including Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and ultimately the Romans.

Through this time Israel carried with them the promise spoken through Isaiah in 49:6 that God would send one who would be “a light for the nations, that my salvation may reach to the end of the earth.” (ESV) Thinking of Israel during this period calls to mind the candle that remains lit after a Good Friday Tenebrae service. Did Israel remember that promise? When we see Anna and Simeon greeting Mary, Joseph, and the infant Jesus at the temple we know that some remembered (Luke 2:22–38).

The One who was to be the light for the nations did come. He told us that we were to let our lives shine before others that they would glorify God (Matthew 5:14–16). Yet He who is the light of the world was hidden momentarily in the darkness of the grave. In glory He arose and ascended to heaven, sending the Holy Spirit as a flame, bringing light and passion to our work (Acts 2:1–4). We also have His Word, a lamp unto our feet and a light unto our path (Psalm 119:105).

A further remark by Saint Paul seems particularly timely as well: “Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them. For it is shameful even to speak of the things that they do in secret. But when anything is exposed by the light, it becomes visible.” (Ephesians 5:11–13 ESV) So too this remark by Justice Louis Brandeis: “Publicity is justly commended as a remedy for social and industrial diseases. Sunlight is said to be the best of disinfectants; electric light the most efficient policeman.”

As we approach Advent and the short days of winter, and as we await the Second Advent, we can remember that we have sources of light that can help us see through any darkness. Let us live in that light, speaking what we know to be true, kind, and edifying, and shining light on the darkness that is all around us.

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Book Review: Consilience

Consilience: The Unity of KnowledgeConsilience: The Unity of Knowledge by Edward O. Wilson

In May 2001 Wendell Berry published Life is a Miracle. He wrote it as a response to Consilience, by Edward O. Wilson. Having an affinity for Wendell Berry’s writing, I read Life is a Miracle several years ago. Then this fall I read Alister McGrath’s The Big Question: Why We Can’t Stop Talking About Science, Faith and God. McGrath also takes issue with Consilience because of Wilson’s conclusion that ethics and morality can be explained by evolution.

In our current cultural environment many of us carry out our intellectual transactions in the safety of communities of like-minded people. I am as guilty of this as the next person, but since two writers whom I respect took issue with the same book by the same author, I thought I should investigate for myself.

Wilson writes for an educated audience. His writing is, nonetheless, approachable and clear.

The theses with which Berry and McGrath take issue are not hard to find in Consilience. According to Wilson, science is capable of telling us everything we need to know. There is no need for intervention by supernatural forces. All supernatural thinking is “ignorance-based metaphysics” which will retreat “like a vampire before the lifted cross” when presented with “objective truth.” (p. 62)

Of particular interest to theists, specifically Christians who espouse young-earth creation, is Wilson’s take on this doctrine. It must be said that he speaks of the Christian’s God with respect. “Perhaps God did create all organisms,including human beings, in finished form, in one stroke, and maybe it all happened several thousand years ago. But if that is true, He also salted the earth with false evidence in such endless and exquisite detail, and so thoroughly from pole to pole, as to make us conclude first that life evolved, and second that the process took billions of years. Surely Scripture tells us He would not do that. The Prime Mover of the Old and New Testaments is variously loving, magisterial, denying, thunderously angry, and mysterious, but never tricky.” (p, 129–130)

Going farther on the subject of God and God’s involvement in human affairs, Wilson observes “God may exist, He may be delighted in what we are up to on this minor planet, but His fine hand is not needed to explain the biosphere.” (p. 198) It’s interesting that this quote is in a chapter on the social sciences, and in a section on economics.

Wilson uses “empiricism” to refer to a world view that understands the world solely in terms of what is observable. “Transcendentalism” allows the intervention of forces outside of what can be observed with senses extended by technology. “The choice between transcendentalism and empiricism will be the coming century’s version of the struggle for men’s souls. Moral reasoning will either remain centered in idioms of theology and philosophy, where it is now, or it will shift toward science-based material analysis. Where it settles will depend on which world view is proved correct, or at least which is more widely perceived to be correct.” (p. 240).

The final chapter, “To What End,” includes what seems to be a summary statement: “What are we? Where do we come from, How show we decide where to go? Why the toil, yearning, honesty, aesthetics, exaltations, love, hate, deceit, brilliance, hubris, humility, shame, and stupidity that collectively define our species? Theology, which long claimed the subject for itself, has done badly. Still encumbered by precepts based on Iron-Age folk knowledge, it is unable to assimilate the great sweep of the real world now open for examination.” (p. 269) Ouch.

Finally, this: “The legacy of the Enlightenment is the believe that entirely on our own we can know, and in knowing, understand, and in understanding, choose wisely. That self-confidence has risen with the exponential growth of scientific knowledge, which is being woven into an increasingly full explanatory web of cause and effect.” (p. 297). That speaks of a hubris that has gotten humanity into trouble since its appearance in the biosphere.

I am thankful for E.O. Wilson and for his challenges to the hardened dogmas of fundamentalism. They need to be challenged. I am also grateful for the work of writers such as Wendell Berry and Alister McGrath, who have provided alternative narratives that include the work of a just and loving God.

Thanks as always for stopping by!


Buy Local, Give Local

Thanksgiving is followed quickly by two important days: Small Business Saturday (Saturday 25 November 2017) and Giving Tuesday (Tuesday 28 November 2017). Intelligent readers will have no trouble deciding what to do on either day. For Giving Tuesday in particular I thought it might be good to highlight some of the small nonprofit organizations that I’ve had contact with this year.


I haven’t donated cash to or volunteered with all of these organizations. In fact I’ve volunteered with only two; three if you count playing in the Bloomfield Civic Band as volunteering. The point of this list is to encourage you to think about the charitable organizations in your own local area and think about ways that you can support them on Giving Tuesday and throughout the year.

What I would also like most of all is for you to comment with suggestions for local charities in your area that deserve support. Updates will be posted to my FB page and Twitter feed as they come in. If you and I are friends on FB or Twitter your friends will see the posts and may also be prompted to take action. I do not plan to filter any suggestions out unless they happen to be for some organization that most readers would find abhorrent. Please supply a URL along with the name of the organization.

I look forward to hearing from. Now, here’s my starter list:

Urban Farming, Sustainable Agriculture


Autism Awareness and Advocacy

Services for the Homeless and Other Neighbors in Need

Welfare of At-Risk Moms and Children

Music Education and Performing Arts


  • Friends of the (your town name here) Public Library

From Andy Walsh  (Mostly Pittsburgh Area)

  • Light of Life Rescue Mission serves the needs of the homeless and others in the Pittsburgh North Side community where I work; in fact, their newest facility will be going up where I used to park.
  • The Watson Institute provides services for many individuals and families with special needs, including those with autism spectrum diagnoses. The organization has a rich history, having previously served polio patients and working with Jonas Salk in developing the vaccine.

Final Thoughts

It should be clear to any observer, regardless of their political leanings or affiliations, that the current philosophy and actions of the U.S. federal government will make the need for private charitable enterprise much greater for the foreseeable future. Whether the enterprise is care for the environment, care for people who have fallen on hard times, or any of the dozens of other social concerns we could name, private individuals and small organizations will have a greater role to fill to meet the challenges of the coming years. Some may think that is as it should be. No matter; the needs will be there and they will be substantial. This Giving Tuesday I hope we can all stretch our imaginations and our budgets a little to stand in the gap.

Thanks as always for stopping by!